(Solved) Edna is an older disabled person




Discuss a range of theories and models relevant to disability and how they may help or hinder current real-world issues

Health concepts are intertwined intricately with disability concepts. In each function, there is a possibility of an opposing missing function, (Gaddes, 2013). There many definitions of the word ‘disability’ based on social and medical environment that surrounds it. Disability was once equated to any human body pathology, however, disability now consists of a complex mixture of environmental and personal factors, (Barnes and Mercer, 2010). For disablement and disability to be understood, a range of models and theories were formulated. These models and theories do not only define disability but also enables a deeper understanding of effects of being disabled and other function factors, (Altman, 2001, p. 98). Furthermore, the models and theories can be used to qualitatively and quantitatively analyse functioning and disability, formulate needs of the affected individuals, which leads to proper usage of available resources, direct social policy and monitored costs, (Altman, 2001, p. 99). There are four disability models; the medical disability model, where disability is viewed as an individual attribute, the social model, where disability is viewed as an environmental product, the economic model, where disability is defined based on the ability of an individual to work, and the religious model; where individuals view disability as a punishment that the family or an individual has been given by a force that is external. In addition, this essay will analyse theories of disability, namely, positivism theory, functionalist theory and social constructionism.

Medical disability model equates inherent disability with pathology, (Zajadacz, 2015). For example, individual suffering from hearing loss is known to be disabled. Likewise, an individual diagnosed with cancer is also considered to be disabled. In medical disability model, disability is seen as a defect or a disease that healthcare professionals and the medical sector must fix and cure. This means that medicine can ‘cure’ disablement and disabilities, (Tennant, 1997, p. 478). The model believes that solutions are drawn by solely focusing on the affected individual by placing the source of the problem within an individual who is single impaired. A better form of the model gives way for economic factors and realizes that economic climate that is poor will impact work opportunities of an individual who is disabled. More so, the solution is still sought from the affected individual by helping her or him to overcome the disability and to cope with rising cases of unemployment. Any person associated with pathology is solely lead to by medical disability model. Nevertheless, no matter how severe the situation is, qualifying for accommodations and social aid notwithstanding the function level, as stated by Snyder and Mitchell, (2010). This led to institutionalization, impoverishment and stigmatisation of various people with pathologies. Simply put, the model believes that the first step is coming up with a cure to normalize the lives of the disabled individuals,

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AS1 Case Study Edna’s Story

Edna is an older disabled person. She has been registered blind for more than 20 years. She has a guide dog, which she adores and who has been a lifeline for her. As she says, “When I got my first dog I hadn’t been over the door on my own in years. I got my first dog and she and I sailed out, went out into the town. It turned my life around, gave me back my life and gave me back my confidence. ”Recently Edna’s health has declined and she now has to go for dialysis three times a week to her local hospital. She describes her experiences travelling with her dog to and from the hospital as “the most difficult issue of my entire life,” adding that “in my 70 years I have never been treated in this fashion ever before.” Edna was initially taken to and from her home in a taxi, contracted by the local Trust. However Edna felt that the driver made things difficult for her because of the dog, even though, as she points out she has previously travelled on trains, buses and even aircraft with her dog without trouble. “I was treated very well by other taxi companies, on the trains, in restaurants. Never, ever before was I treated like not only a second class citizen but a third class citizen.” When Edna contacted the Trust about the issue, she found them apparently more interested in challenging her complaint than speaking to the taxi firm concerned. In fact, she was told that she could make her own transport arrangements if she so wished. But this would have cost Edna over £5000 per year and she feels that it is wrong for her to be treated differently just because she has a guide dog. Dealing with the attitude and approach of taxi drivers on top of all that left her very upset. “I felt diminished and demeaned, I must confess that I felt really victimised to the extent that I felt that I was being penalised because I had sight loss and I was using a guide dog as my mobility aid.” The Trust seemed unable or unwilling to tackle the matter of the taxi firm’s behaviour. Instead Edna was, as she puts it “bumped onto what was called an ambulance”. Edna is the only renal patient travelling in this fashion. This vehicle is not really suitable -there is no heat in the rear where Edna and her dog have to sit, so she is freezing and there have been a range of other problems. Edna’s beloved dog has also suffered –hyperventilating and shaking whilst in the ambulance. It turns out this may be because the vehicle is being washed out with bleach, which burns the dog’s paws. “So it just goes on and on,” says Edna. “It’s distressing for me but more importantly it’s distressing for my dog and he can’t tell me what’s wrong. I just find it hard to cope with.” Edna believes that the difficulty with the transport has adversely affected upon her health. As she explains: “Dialysis is not an easy treatment to have three days a week; it takes the best part of 5 hours each time and it is very draining and quite debilitating at times. So I was finding this quite distressing.” “If my treatment in the dialysis unit was only for 6 weeks,” she says, “I wouldn’t have bothered even making contact even with regard to the first issue; I would have gone the 6 weeks and thought well thank goodness that’s over. But I have to travel this way for the rest of my natural life and I am not prepared to do that. Why should I be treated like this? Why should I be treated and carried in such a fashion and made to feel that I am just a nobody?” Edna is the only renal patient who is being transported to and from treatment in this fashion: she believes firmly that this is because she travels with a guide dog. The whole experience has greatly distressed Edna and her consultant has noticed an adverse impact on her mood and general health. However, because of the state of her health she feels she has been unable to get the authorities to address the matter. “I can’t because I haven’t got the energy. When your kidneys are not working, you are not working. You are just going from day to day, it’s really hard. I hate stepping out of here in the morning. I am fine when I get to the unit but it’s the getting there and getting home. I just dread it. It is impacting on my dog now, a poor animal who can’t speak and can’t tell me. I depend on him to keep me safe, the poor thing.”

AS1 is divided into Part 1 and Part 2, you must complete both parts in order to pass as this is one assignment and the contents is inclusive of the learning outcomes. Edna is an older disabled person

  • The total word count is 3,500 words
  • You have 3 opportunities to submit: 23rd June 2020
  • 21st July 2020
  •                  20th August 2020  
  • You must submit your assignment via Turnitin to the relevant portal
Module Learning Outcomes
Subject-Specific Knowledge, Understanding & Application
a)      Identify and explain a range of theories and models relevant to disability
b)      Demonstrate an understanding of inequality and discrimination
c)      Recognise and understand how cultural and social systems can influence personal values 
d)     Analyse service user narratives to understand their life experiences
Employability & Changemaker Skills
e)    Critically evaluate approaches and solutions to a given scenario
f)     Investigate real world issues


Part 1, Essay (word count 2,000 words)

Assignment task:

  • Drawing upon your learning during this module and relevant background reading

Discuss a range of theories and models relevant to disability and how they may help or hinder current real-world issues in relation to the topic.


  • You must write your answer as an academic piece of work (in third person) with an introduction, main body, conclusion and a reference list.
  • You must reference within your work using Harvard.


Part 2, Case Study (word count is 1500 words)

Assignment task: Edna is an older disabled person

Please read the case study for Part 2.

Read (and re-read) the case study which you can find in the Case Study folder under Assessment Information on the module’s NILE site and complete the following task:

The purpose of this activity is for you to explore the case and evaluate approaches and possible solutions, demonstrating an understanding of Edna’s situation.

Case Study 1 Edna’s Story (total word count=1500 words) Edna is an older disabled person

  1. Write a short introduction to the case study.
  2. Your Analysis- What barriers or challenges does Edna think she is facing and why/can you identify any more? Why do the problems exist? What impact do they have? Who is responsible for them?
  3. Possible solutions/changes – Review module learning, discussions/notes. How does this relate to inequalities and discrimination? Are there any cultural or social systems that are influencing Edna’s personal values (explore this) ?
  4. Best Solution – Consider strong supporting evidence. What is the best solution for Edna? What are the pros and cons to this? Is this solution realistic?
  5. Write a short conclusion to the case study.

You must reference within your work and write a reference list using Harvard


At this level of study you must show a breadth and depth to your knowledge and understanding. You should reference within your work and include a reference list using Harvard Referencing.


Edna is an older disabled person